Twin explosions hit Przewodów, a rural village located five miles from the Ukrainian border in south western Poland. The aftermath of the explosions, which killed two, is pictured

Britain laid the blame for civilian deaths from a missile strike in Poland firmly at the door of Vladimir Putin today – as it emerged the weapon may have been fired by Ukraine.

Foreign Secretary James Cleverly told MPs that Putin’s brutal invasion was the only reason rockets were ‘flying through European skies’.

Poland’s president Andrzej Duda has said the hit, which killed two people on Tuesday evening, was not an attack on his country by Russia and there is a ‘high probability’ Ukrainian defence forces were involved.

In the Commons this afternoon Mr Cleverly cited a similar opinion from Nato secretary general Jens Stoltenberg, adding: ‘Poland will lead the investigation to establish exactly what has happened and the UK stands ready to provide any practical or technical assistance.

‘In the meantime, we are not going to rush to judgment. Our response will always be led by the facts.

‘But the House should be in no doubt that the only reason why missiles are flying through European skies and exploding in European villages is because of Russia’s barbaric invasion of Ukraine.’

Prime Minister Rishi Sunak had earlier vowed that NATO will ‘get to the bottom’ of the missile strike.

At a press conference at the G20 in Bali, Rishi Sunak said the military alliance was ‘establishing the facts’ over the incident that killed two people in member state Poland overnight

Twin explosions hit Przewodów, a rural village located five miles from the Ukrainian border in south-western Poland. The aftermath of the explosions, which killed two, is pictured

Twin explosions hit Przewodów, a rural village located five miles from the Ukrainian border in south-western Poland. The aftermath of the explosions, which killed two, is pictured

Twin explosions hit Przewodów, a rural village located five miles from the Ukrainian border in south-western Poland. The aftermath of the explosions, which killed two, is pictured

At a press conference at the G20 summit in Bali, the PM said the military alliance was ‘establishing the facts’ but he insisted the situation would not have arisen without Russia raining down scores of missiles on Ukraine in recent days. 

He said Putin was responsible for the ‘persistent threat to our security’ and efforts to ‘asphyxiate’ the economy. 

The missile strike has sparked fears Nato could be drawn into the Ukraine war and a direct confrontation with Russia.

Mr Duda, speaking after a meeting of his security council Wednesday, said he has seen ‘no evidence’ the missile was fired by Russia and it was in fact ‘highly probable’ the Soviet-era S-300 rocket came from Ukraine. 

There is no indication that Poland was deliberately targeted, he added.

‘Ukraine’s defense was launching their missiles in various directions and it is highly probable that one of these missiles unfortunately fell on Polish territory,’ according to Mr Duda.

He added that Russia bears ultimate responsibility for the strike because Putin began the war in Ukraine.

Mr Stoltenberg backed that analysis – saying the strike was likely a Ukrainian missile, but there is ‘no indication’ it was deliberate and there is ‘no indication’ Russia is preparing an attack on Nato. 

However, he added: ‘This is not Ukraine’s fault. Russia bears ultimate responsibility as it continues its illegal war against Ukraine.’

Ludivine Dedonder, the Belgian defence minister, said preliminary investigations by her security forces indicate the same thing – adding to reports that emerged in the early hours suggesting Biden had also told Nato leaders the rocket was from Ukraine.

Shadow foreign secretary David Lammy told the Commons: ‘Poland and Nato allies deserve praise for taking the correct steps to carefully assess this incident and avoid escalation.

‘It is right that we continue to proceed with cool heads to determine exactly what has taken place and work in lockstep with Poland and Nato allies.

‘As the shadow defence secretary and I restated on our visits to Nato HQ in Brussels last week, Labour’s commitment to Nato is unshakeable. We also note, as the Foreign Secretary did too, the Nato general secretary’s words earlier today.

‘Russia bears ultimate responsibility as it continues its illegal war against Ukraine.’

The news came after a nervous night in which it looked like Nato and Russia could be heading for a direct confrontation that would have risked triggering World War Three, and it underlines the risk that a single mistake or miscalculation in Ukraine could yet spark such a conflict.

Meanwhile Joe Biden, speaking after an emergency meeting of NATO leaders at the G20 summit in Indonesia, said it appears the missile was not fired ‘from Russia’, which does not rule out the possibility that it was fired by Russian aircraft outside the country’s borders. Biden stressed that investigations are ongoing.

Mr Sunak said he had offered the Polish president his ‘wholehearted support’ and assurance that the UK ‘stands steadfastly behind him and his people at this worrying time’.

The premier said: ‘We should all be clear: None of this would be happening if it weren’t for Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

‘This is the cruel and unrelenting reality of Putin’s war.’

He went on: ‘The persistent threat to our security and global asphyxiation has been driven by the actions of the one man unwilling to be at this summit – Vladimir Putin.

‘There isn’t a single person in the world who has not felt the impact of Putin’s war.’

Mr Sunak said they were determined to establish what happened with the missile that hit Poland.

‘What we agreed this morning is that it is important to establish the facts and this is exactly what is happening as we speak. We will get to the bottom of what happened,’ he said.

‘That was happening at a time when the G20 was gathered trying to find resolution to some of the world’s challenges. I think it shows utter contempt for the international rules-based system.’

American intelligence sources said preliminary data points to the rocket being a Ukrainian air-defence missile fired at an incoming Russian munition, but nobody was willing to go on-record with that information early on Wednesday. 

The strike came amid a huge Russian bombardment on Ukraine, with air raid sirens sounding again today.

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky blamed Moscow – calling it a ‘Russian missile attack on collective security’ and warning G20 leaders ‘there is a terrorist state among you’. 

The Kremlin denied responsibility, with ex-Russian President Dmitry Medvedev saying it is another example of Western ‘hybrid war’ that ‘moves closer to world war’.

A chunk of metal is pictured lying in the dirt after the explosion. The Polish president has said the missile appears to be 'Russian-made', while Joe Biden has said it does not appear the missile was fired 'from Russia'

A chunk of metal is pictured lying in the dirt after the explosion. The Polish president has said the missile appears to be 'Russian-made', while Joe Biden has said it does not appear the missile was fired 'from Russia'

A chunk of metal is pictured lying in the dirt after the explosion. The Polish president has said the missile appears to be ‘Russian-made’, while Joe Biden has said it does not appear the missile was fired ‘from Russia’

Joe Biden chaired an emergency meeting of NATO leaders - including close allies Japan and the EU - at the G20 summit in Indonesia as they work out how to respond after the missile strike

Joe Biden chaired an emergency meeting of NATO leaders - including close allies Japan and the EU - at the G20 summit in Indonesia as they work out how to respond after the missile strike

Joe Biden chaired an emergency meeting of NATO leaders – including close allies Japan and the EU – at the G20 summit in Indonesia as they work out how to respond after the missile strike

Smoke rises in the distance, amid reports of two explosions, seen from Nowosiolki, Poland, near the border with Ukraine

Smoke rises in the distance, amid reports of two explosions, seen from Nowosiolki, Poland, near the border with Ukraine

Smoke rises in the distance, amid reports of two explosions, seen from Nowosiolki, Poland, near the border with Ukraine

The strike on Przewodow came amid the largest Russian missile bombardment on Ukraine yet during the war, with Kyiv's air force saying 90 weapons were fired in consecutive salvos - mostly targeting energy infrastructure

The strike on Przewodow came amid the largest Russian missile bombardment on Ukraine yet during the war, with Kyiv's air force saying 90 weapons were fired in consecutive salvos - mostly targeting energy infrastructure

The strike on Przewodow came amid the largest Russian missile bombardment on Ukraine yet during the war, with Kyiv’s air force saying 90 weapons were fired in consecutive salvos – mostly targeting energy infrastructure

What are NATO Articles 4 and 5 – and what does it mean if they are implemented? 

What is Article 4 of NATO? 

If any NATO member – in this case Poland – feels their territory, political independence or security is under threat, they can request a NATO meeting under Article 4.

This is a call for consultations among the allies in the face of a security threat, allowing for more time to determine what steps to take. 

At this state of the process, the Allies are able to exchange views and information, and discuss issues prior to reaching an agreement and taking action. 

Within hours of the blast in Poland on Tuesday night, two European diplomats said Warsaw requested a NATO meeting under Article 4 for consultations.

This has not been officially triggered yet, but Poland are likely to call for a NATO meeting this morning to discuss the threat as a result of the missile strike.

Article 4 of the NATO treaty is seen as a starting point for major NATO operations as it can lead to members triggering Article 5.

When has Article 4 been invoked?

Article 4 has been officially invoked seven times since the alliance’s creation in 1949.

For instance, on 24 February 2022, Bulgaria, Czechia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia requested to hold consultations under Article 4 following the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Poland involved Article 4 in 2014 following increasing tensions in Ukraine, as a result of Russia’s aggressive actions.

Turkey has also invoked Article 4 on multiple occasions, such as in 2015 following terrorist attacks. 

And in 2003, Turkey invoked the charter and asked for consultations with NATO members on defensive assistance in the event of a threat to its population or territory resulting from armed conflict in neighbouring Iraq. 

What is Article 5?

Article 5 is the cornerstone of the founding treaty of NATO, which was created in 1949 with the U.S. military as its powerful mainstay essentially to counter the Soviet Union and its Eastern bloc satellites during the Cold War.

The charter stipulates that NATO members agree that an armed attack against one or more of them ‘shall be considered an attack against them all’.

If such an attack does occur, each NATO member will assist the country that has been attacked any action ‘it deems necessary’. 

This can include the use of armed force with the aim of restoring and maintaining the security of the North Atlantic area.

What does it mean if Article 5 is invoked?  

If Poland does trigger Article 4 of the NATO treaty and call a meeting to discuss the security threat, the alliance could decide to trigger Article 5. 

What this could mean depends on what action the alliance decide to take, as the charter stipulates that members can take any action ‘it deems necessary’.

This could include the use of armed force – but this must be decided by the alliance.

When has Article 5 been invoked?  

Article 5 has only been triggered once before, and this was on behalf of the United States, in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington. 

Is invoking Article 5 automatic? 

But invoking Article 5 is not automatic because the NATO members must agree on what action they want to take. 

There is no time limit on how long the consultations under Article 4 can take, and experts say the language is flexible enough to allow each member to decide how far to go in responding to armed aggression against another.

The dramatic development came on another day of bloodshed and destruction in Ukraine, with more than 100 Russian missiles landing in major population centres, killing three and cutting the power supply to millions.

Mr Zelensky spoke by phone on  Tuesday with Polish counterpart Mr Duda, offering his condolences following reports of the alleged Russian missile strike on Polish soil.

‘Expressed condolences over the death of Polish citizens from Russian missile terror. We exchanged available information and are clarifying all the facts. Ukraine, Poland, all of Europe and the world must be fully protected from terrorist Russia,’ Zelensky said in a tweet.

Mr Stoltenberg said on Twitter: ‘Spoke with President Duda about the explosion in Poland. I offered my condolences for the loss of life. Nato is monitoring the situation and Allies are closely consulting. Important that all facts are established.’

European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen meanwhile declared: ‘Alarmed by reports of an explosion in Poland, following a massive Russian missile strike on Ukrainian cities. I extend my condolences and my strongest message of support and solidarity with Poland and our Ukrainian friends,’ adding she was in close contact with Polish security officials.

Mr Sunak in a tweet said Britain will support allies as they establish what happened.

‘We are also coordinating with our international partners, including Nato,’ Sunak said.

French president Emmanuel Macron said: ‘The consequences of this conflict go beyond European borders’.

Latvian deputy prime minister Artis Pabriks tweeted: ‘My condolences to our Polish brothers in arms. Criminal Russian regime fired missiles which target not only Ukrainian civilians but also landed on Nato territory.’

Estonia’s Ministry for Foreign Affairs added: ‘Estonia is ready to defend every inch of Nato territory.’

And UK defence commentator Rear Admiral Chris Parry said it was ‘time to station advanced anti-air systems on Nato’s borders and intercept anything that looks like it would cross those borders’.

Russia on Tuesday unleashed one of its largest missile barrages to date at Ukraine, leaving the country’s energy network ‘critical’ with rolling blackouts.

More than 100 rockets were fired at cities across the country, hitting civilian buildings and power stations, the Ukrainian air force said.

The bombardment left half of Kyiv, where at least one civilian died, and the whole city of Zhytomyr without power.

Strikes were also reported in the western city of Lviv – the closest large urban settlement to the Polish border – and caused partial blackouts.

Kharkiv, Vinnytsia, Rivne, Odesa, Zaporizhzhia, Chernihiv, Khmelnytskyi, and Ivano-Frankivsk were also targeted.

The bombardment came as German newspaper Der Spiegel reported that documents leaked from the German military said one of the country’s top generals, Eberhard Zorn, ordered the country’s army to put itself on a war footing in the face of ‘existential’ threats.

The 68-page policy paper was produced in September, according to Der Spiegel. In it, Zorn called for the complete overhaul of the German military and told commanders to prepare themselves for war.

‘Attacks on Germany can potentially occur without warning and with great, possibly even existential, damage,’ he wrote.

Attacks on Ukraine came just hours after Zelensky – speaking via videolink from Kyiv – told world leaders at the G20 Bali summit that he is ready to end the war provided Russia withdraws its troops from areas it currently occupies.

Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov – speaking later at the summit in Indonesia – accused the West of waging ‘hybrid war’ in Ukraine and Kyiv of ‘prolonging’ the conflict, without mentioning Russia’s own involvement in the fighting.

‘There is an attack on the capital. According to preliminary information, two residential buildings were hit in the Pechersk district,’ Kyiv Mayor Vitali Klitschko said.

‘Several missiles were shot down over Kyiv by air defence systems. Medics and rescuers are at the scene of the strikes.’

Moments later, he added: ‘Another hit in the Pechersk district. Multi-storey building.’

Andriy Yermak, head of Zelensky’s staff, said the attack was a response to the president addressing the G20 – ramping up pressure on Russia to stop its attacks.

‘Does anyone seriously think that the Kremlin really wants peace? It wants obedience. But at the end of the day, terrorists always lose,’ Yermak said.

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